Is Serum Caveolin-1 a Useful Biomarker for Progression in Patients with Colorectal Cancer?
AuthorErdemli, Hacı Kemal
Karagöz Şen, Fatma
Şahin, Abdullah Fahri
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CitationErdemli, H. K., Kocabas, R., Salis, O., Sen, F., Akyol, S., Eskin, F., ... & Sahin, A. F. (2016). Is serum caveolin-1 a useful biomarker for progression in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Lab, 62(3), 401-8.
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer diagnosed in males and the second in females. Survival is strongly related to stage at diagnosis. There is an urgent need to find a noninvasive biomarker that can be commonly applied for screening diagnosis, early detection of recurrence, and monitoring of metastatic CRC. Protein caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been known to be expressed abnormally in colon cancer and appears to contribute to aberrant signaling and protein trafficking. There are controversial results regarding the role of CAV-1 in cancer. We hypothesized that levels of CAV-1 in serum of patients with CRC might be important to estimate the progression of the disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether serum CAV-1 might be used as a factor determining progression of CRC. Methods: A total of 61 patients with CRC (26 male, 35 female) and 46 controls (38 male, 8 female) were enrolled. Serum CAV-1 levels were measured by ELISA. The relationship between CAV-1 and progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results were given as median (95% CI). Mann-Whitney test was used for the comparison of groups. Results: CAV-1 levels were found to be 11.5 ng/mL (10.4-12.9) in CRC and 11.9 ng/mL (10.7-14.4) in controls (p = 0.465). The serum CAV-1 levels in CRC patients with disease progression and without progression were respectively 10.0 ng/mL (8.5-11.3) and 12.2 ng/mL (11.1-14.8) (p = 0.023). In ROC analysis, if CAV-1 levels are equal or lesser than 10.73 ng/mL, it might show presence of progression with a sensitivity 73.3% and specificity 66.7% in patients with CRC (area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.697, p = 0.005). The mean PFS time was found to be 29.7 months (19.8 - 39.7, 95% CI for the mean) in patients who have CAV-1 level<10.73 ng/mL and 61.9 months (44.2 - 79.6) in patients who have CAV-1 level>10.73 ng/mL [hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI = 3.49 (1.26 - 9.68) (p = 0.017)]. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that CAV-1 levels might be used as a marker to determine progression of CRC. When considered in combination with other biomarkers of CRC, CAV-1 is clinically informative and instructive.