Relationship between elevated serum level of placental growth factor and status of gestational diabetes mellitus
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CitationGorkem, U., Togrul, C., & Arslan, E. (2019). Relationship between elevated serum level of placental growth factor and status of gestational diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 1-5.
Objective: As only limited and confusing evidence about serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exist in the known literature, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum PlGF level with GDM status. Methods: The pregnant women attending the Obstetrics Outpatient Unit of Hitit University Hospital were screened at 24 and 28 weeks of gestation for GDM according to the suggestions of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Concisely, all of the low-risk pregnant women were evaluated with a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT). Women with serum glucose ≥140 mg/dL at 1 h after GCT were subjected to a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). According to the criteria of Carpenter and Coustan, the GDM diagnosis was confirmed. Consequently, a total of 158 pregnant women eligible for inclusion criteria were categorized into two main groups; 76 of the GDM group, 82 of the control group. The demographic characteristic and biochemical parameters of the study population including age, body mass index (BMI), gestational age were recorded at the second trimester. The assays for glucose, insulin, and PlGF were carried out. Results: The mean maternal age of control and GDM groups were 27.9 and 30.5 years, respectively. The parameters such as age, BMI, and gestational age were statistically similar in both groups (p>.05, for all). As expected, serum insulin level and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value were significantly elevated in women with GDM (p<.001, for both). Moreover, maternal PlGF concentration was found to be higher in the GDM group compared to the control group (p=.029). Pearson’s correlation analysis of PlGF with other study parameters revealed that there was a negative moderate and significant correlation in only control group (r= −0.416, p<.05). However, this correlation was not detected in the GDM group (r = 0.099, p>.05). None of the variables including maternal age, BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR showed significant correlations in GDM and control groups. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that maternal serum PlGF level is increased in pregnant women complicated with GDM. Early identification of pregnant women who subsequently will pose GDM risk could improve the pregnancy outcomes.