Savaştan doğan bir tip: "Harp zengini"
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CitationDemiryürek, M. (2015). Savaştan doğan bir tip: "Harp zengini". Electronic Turkish Studies, 10(16), 493-508.
I. Dünya Savaşı, Harb-i Umumi ifadesinden hareketle de anlaşılacağı üzere, sadece savaş meydanlarında yaşanmamış, başta savaşan ülkeler olmak üzere bütün dünya devletleri için genel yıkıcı bir rol oynamıştır. Savaş esnasında ve sonrasında siyasî, ekonomik ve sosyal değişmeler bütün dengeleri altüst etmiş, yeni değer yargıları ve davranışlar geliştirmiştir. I. Dünya Savaşı'nın doğurduğu siyasî, ekonomik ve sosyal şartlar doğal olarak edebiyatı da etkilemiştir. Başta ekonomik sebepler yüzünden meydana gelen değişimlerin edebî sonuçları da olmuştur. Bunlardan birisi "harp zengini" kavramının doğuşu ve bu kavramı somutlaştıran yeni bir tipin teşekkülüdür. Fransa'da eski ve köklü zenginlerden ayırt etmek için savaş vurguncularına "yeni zengin" adı verilirken, I. Dünya Savaşı'nın sonlarına doğru Türkiye'deki basın yayın organlarında "harp zengini" ifadesi kullanılmaya başlandı. Burada kastedilen "Harb-i Umumi" sırasında çeşitli gayrimeşru yollarla zengin olmuş kişilerdi. Şeker, un gibi temel ihtiyaç maddelerini büyük miktarlarda alıp devletin vagonları aracılığıyla taşıyan ve türlü usulsüzlüklerle bunları fahiş fiyatlarla satan, içinde tanınmış kişilerin de bulunduğu, bir zümre hızla ve anormal bir biçimde zenginleşir. Devrin Sabah, Vakit, Tasvir-i Efkâr gibi gazetelerinde sürekli konuyla ilgili yazılar yayımlanır, kolay ve kanun dışı yollardan zenginleşenler eleştirilir, hatta bu kişilerin isimleri teşhir edilir. Ayrıca hükûmetin problemin çözümüne yönelik uğraşları desteklenir. Gazete ve dergilerdeki eleştiriler sadece fikir tartışmaları düzeyinde kalmaz, edebî eserlere de yansır. Ahmet Emin Yalman'ın kullanımıyla "harp zengini" kavramı hızla yaygınlık kazanır ve savaş zenginlerini konu alan sohbet yazıları, romanlar ve hikâyeler yazılır, karikatürler çizilip albümler yayımlanır. Kavram ve tip savaşın bitiminden sonra, Cumhuriyet yıllarında da Türk edebiyatındaki varlığını sürdürür. Sermet Muhtar Alus'un Harp Zengininin Gelini (1932, 1934) adlı romanı buna örnektir. Bu çalışmanın amacı "harp zengini" kavramının Türk basınında ve edebiyatında yer alış sürecini çeşitli örneklerle tespit edip aynı başlık altında yazılmış, ancak bugüne değin herhangi bir çalışmada yer verilmemiş edebî eserleri, gazete ve dergilerden yararlanarak ortaya çıkarmak ve bunları incelemektir. İlaveten "harp zengini" ifadesiyle tanımlanan tipin değerlendirmektir. özelliklerini ve edebiyatımıza yansımalarını değerlendirmektir.French novelist Stendhal said: “a novel is a mirror carried along a high road. At one moment it reflects to your vision the azure skies, at another the mire of the puddles at your feet…” The World War the first had not only the social, economic and political results but also literary results. One of the literary results was the theme of “harb zengini” (the war profiteer). In the last year of the World War the first one can see a statement of “Rich men of the War” in the Turkish press. The Turkish press criticized the rich men earning a lot of money with corruptions during the war and called them as “Rich men of the War”. In addition to this, Turkish authors wrote and published some novels and stories concerning the “Rich men of the War”. Such as Omer Seyfettin, Orhan Mithat, Aka Gündüz, Huseyin Rahmi. This article focuses on their works. Because of they wrote in newspapers and magazine, their stories and novels couldn’t release up to the present. The aims of this study are to reveal the novels and stories concerning the “Rich men of the War” and to evaluate the reflections of this statement on the Turkish literature Wars always create more problems than they solve. As it can be seen from the World War I that whole world and humanity were affected negatively before, during, and after the war. It has been known as a fact that literature is a mirror of the society. Therefore, each literary text reflects the truth of situation of society. Literature frequently presents a picture of what societies think, talk and do in the humanity. Thus, factors affecting social life as wars, effects on literature. For instance, a new term “the war profiteer” ensued after the World War I in Turkish literatures as newspapers, novels, and stories. Who and why the war became profiteer after the World War I although most of people became poor around the world? Numerous newspapers such as Sabah, Vakit and Tasvir-i Efkar mentioned and discussed that term in that time. Also this kind of discussion was appeared in Turkish literatures, stories and novels. After natural and human-made disasters such as earthquake, hurricanes and wars, numerous problems arise around the world because of the authority gap. While this kind of problems make some individuals become poor, others earn more power and money during the destruction in many countries. This is an unavoidable factor of wars. Ahmet Emin talks about types of riches. According to him there are three types of rich in Turkey. First of all, people can become rich by producing many things with their dignity. Second, people can become rich because of stock exchange transaction. The last, individual gets rich by illegality. The aim of this study is ascertaining examples of the notion of “the war profiteer” and its process in the Turkish press and literature. It is also planning to reveal and analyse belles-lettres, newspapers and journals which speaks of the war profiteer after the World War I. It is possible to say by looking at history of Turkish literature that although there are numerous novels, stories, newspapers journals about the war profiteer after the Great War, academic studies on the war profiteer is very few and insufficient. For instance, the articles of Kacıroğlu (2009) and Van Het Hof (2010) are over this term. However, they refer some novels. They are not using newspapers and journals sufficiently. In fact, there are various articles which are waiting for to be searched over the Great War at the press from right after the World War I until republic period. This study also aims to mention about these articles. Some novels or stories are inspired from real events or peoples. Therefore, Information which is determined by looking at newspapers, magazines, and archives is going to be comparing with a real individual or incident. Although there are connections between Literature and History, it is not necessary for Literature to go into historical detail or to discuss each point. However, narrate or researcher can find whom or what writer mentioned about. After the Great War, new “type of people” occurred in many countries. They call them “the war profiteer” in Turkey, “new rich” in France. Then, writers adjusted these types in their books. Sermet Muhtar Alus’s novel named “Harp Zengininin Gelini (The Bride of the War Profiteer) (1932, 34), is an example for this. The indication of the study shows that there are connection between arts, literature and the truths of life and history. Literatures and arts are inspired by the real life. In fact, the paper proves it by giving exams from the journals, newspapers and novels which mentioned meaning of the war profiteer that is occurred right after the Great War in Turkey. For example, newspapers as Vakit and Sabah had news several time over sugar corruption. Authors’ point of view is the perspective that corruptions rose to the surface because of the war and authority gap in Turkey along with the world. These kinds of books and press also have numerous points of view and information over the World War I. Researchers needs to analyse it deeply. This study also can be evaluated within the context of fiction-nonfiction and historyliterature. In conclusion, the World War I effected the political social and economic situation of society. Individuals who are the constituent of humanity also affected from this ıssues negatively. However, some persons became rich easily by taking advantage of authority gap. During the Great War, the war profiteer came into existence with the Ottoman Empire and France, Germany, and America. In beginning, amenable to France press, Turkish press were using the notion of “new riches” for those people who became riches very quickly. Afterwards, notion of “the war profiteer” is situated in Turkish press, novels, and stories. Kazım Şinasi and Ahmet Emin (Yalman) was the first people who distinguished “riches” from “the war profiteer”. Especially Ahmet Emin called prople’s attention to these differences. Newspapers such as Vakit, Sabah, Tasvir-i Efkar and journals like Yeni Mecmua, Büyük Mecmua, Diken and Donanma published over war crimes as profiteering sugar and flour. Thus, people and intellectual reacted to the war profiteer. After 1918, numerous literary texts started to mention this notion. Some Turkish authors such as Refik Halit, Hüseyin Rahmi, Sermet Muhtar stated about the war profiteer in their writings. Having these kinds of terms in newspapers, journals, novels and stories show that literatures reflect the problems of societies. Therefore, researchers need to study most of terms which is taking a place in society as “the war profiteer” to show problems and values of the humanity. The Ottoman Turkish press and literature criticized the rich people earning a lot of money with corruptions during the World War I and called them as “Harp Zengini” (Rich men of the War, the war profiteer). Some authors wrote some novels and stories. This article focuses on their works. However their stories and novels couldn’t release up to the present. The aims of this study are to reveal the novels and stories concerning the “Rich men of the War” and to evaluate the reflections of this statement on the Turkish literature.