Ochratoxin A in cereal-derived products in Turkey: Occurrence and exposure assessment
Eighty-three samples of cereal-derived products including 24 breakfast cereals, 24 cereal-based baby foods and 35 beers purchased from supermarkets and small shops of Adana in Turkey were analysed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) using immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The average OTA recoveries from spiked breakfast cereal and cereal-based baby food and beers samples were in the range of 79.33-83.86%, 72.93-80.34% and 76.47-83.11%, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDr) of recoveries for breakfast cereals, cereal-based baby foods and beers were 1.1-3.39%, 2.56-8.37% and 5.73-13.61%, respectively. OTA was detected in 38% of breakfast cereals, in 17% of cereal-based baby food and in 14% of beer samples. OTA levels ranged from 0.172 to 1.84, from 0.122 to 0.374 and from 0.012 to 0.045 ng ml-1, respectively. All cereal-derived products examined contained OTA at concentrations very much lower below the limit recommended by European Commission Regulation. The results of this study suggest that cereal-derived products such as breakfast cereals, cereal-based baby foods and beer consumed in Turkey presents no risk by human exposure to OTA through their consumption. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.